PR-503-048 - 2019 STEELSIM Conference Proceedings

Simulation of the Heat Transfer Within the Ladle Furnace

Reimann, Hay, Echterhof, Pfeifer

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Until the 1970s, production of demanding steel grades took place in open hearth or electric furnaces with ladles used only as a means of transporting the liquid metal to casting. Since the introduction of secondary steelmaking, the ladle has developed into a vessel for reheating and refining of crude steel. While the converter and electric arc furnace are still used for decarburization and melting of scrap respectively, the crude steel is then tapped into the ladle, where further refinement is performed. The process steps within the ladle furnace include deoxidation, desulfurization and adjustment of composition. Furthermore, the liquid steel is heated to the exact casting temperature (3K) and homogenization and removal of inclusions are facilitated by argon gas stirring. Heating within the ladle furnace is provided by electric energy, which is delivered to the melt through electric arcs and to some degree through chemical reactions. Due to its high versatility, the ladle furnace is a common piece of equipment and brought to use in most steel plants. Nevertheless, there still is potential for further improvement of the process regarding its energy and resource efficiency and productivity.

Keywords: Ladle Furnace, Radiative Heat Transfer, Process Model